Empathic Communication Coding System
ECCS Coding Manual - transcripts and audio recordings
Identifying and Coding Empathic Opportunities and Unitizing Sheet
Developers: Carma Bylund and Greg Makoul
Year of publication: 2002
Date of last revision: 12 May 2023
Setting in which the tool was originally developed/validated: Primary care
Restriction to setting(s): None
Target group: Clinician or other health care provider
Patient created empathic opportunities
Clinician responses to empathic opportunities
Types of data required to use the tool: Video recordings, Audio recordings, Transcripts
Intended application: Education, Research
Reference(s) to development/validation paper(s):
Bylund CL, Makoul G. Empathic communication and gender in the physician-patient encounter. Patient Education and Counseling. 2002 Dec;48(3):207-16. PMID: 12477605
Bylund CL, Makoul G. Examining empathy in medical encounters: An observational study using the Empathic Communication Coding System. Health. 2005;18(2):123-40. PMID: 16083407.
Tool/manual available: Yes.
Tool description by the author:
Specific training is not needed. Developed for research. However, could be used also for educational assessments, particularly valid if the conceptual approach to empathic communication is taught.
Additional information on copyright or other matters: Please share any publications using this tool with Dr. Bylund via email.
Contact: Carma Bylund