Developers: Siyang Yuan, Gerry Humphris, Al Ross, Lorna MacPherson, Ruth Freeman

Year of publication: 2019

Date of last revision: 12 May 2023

Setting in which the tool was originally developed/validated: Clinical dental setting

Restriction to setting(s): The coding scheme will apply to triadic consultation setting involving preschool age children

Target group: Dental professional, preschool child patient, parent/carer

Language(s): English

Tool topics:

Non-verbal communication
Triadic / family consultations

Specific constructs/behaviours:

Verbal and non-verbal behaviours

Types of data required to use the tool: Video recordings

Intended application: Education, Research

Reference(s) to development/validation paper(s):

Yuan, S., Humphris, G., MacPherson, L., Ross, A. H., & Freeman, R. (2019). Development of an interaction coding scheme (PaeD-TrICS) to record the triadic communication behaviours in preventive dental consultations with preschool child patients and families: a video-based observational study. BMC Oral Health, 19, 1-10. [162].

Yuan, S., Humphris, G., Ross, A., MacPherson, L., & Freeman, R. (2019). Recording communication in primary dental practice: an exploratory study of interactions between dental health professionals, children and parents. British Dental Journal, 227(10), 887-892.

Yuan, S., Humphris, G., MacPherson, L. M. D., Ross, A., & Freeman, R. (2021). Communication strategies to encourage child participation in an oral health promotion session: an exemplar video observational study. Health Expectations, 24(2), 700-708.

Tool/manual available: Yes. (Website)

Tool description by the author:

Triadic consultation involving a preschool child patient, a parent and a clinician in dental settings is rather complex as there is a prerogative to provide age appropriate information to the child for prevention and treatment as well as preparing them for dental procedures. The PaeD-TrICS is used to observe, code and analyze the observable communication behaviours of the triads of child patient-parent-dental professional in primary care dental settings. The coding scheme includes verbal and non-verbal communication behaviours of each actor. This coding scheme can be used to describe and identify effective communication strategies to engage preschool child patients in a triadic consultation to focus on oral health promotional education and preventive treatments such as fluoride varnish application.

Access: Public